Who Are The Aborigines?

Aborigine is a term that signifies "from the beginning." 

When the British invaded Australia in 1788, this term started to be specifically used to refer to the over one million native Australians living there. 

Due to the violent confrontation between successive waves of European immigrants and the Aboriginal population, many cultures have subsequently been lost. 

Some civilizations have persisted and have refocused on their family networks, intimate ties to the land in terms of law and religion, and the preservation of their language and culture. 

There are still 20 languages out of 250. 

According to experts, the ancestors of today's Aborigines arrived in Australia some 46,000 years ago, maybe during the Ice Age when sea levels were low. 

Shell middens date to 30,000 years ago, whereas archaeological sites close to Melbourne and Perth date to 40,000 years ago. 

Closely related indigenous populations from Australia and New Guinea likely have an Indonesian ancestry

The enormous number of families of Aboriginal languages, which lack any discernible links, reflect a considerably longer time of diversification than the South Pacific's only Austronesian language family

Sharp-edged stone flakes and fragments made up the first tools. 

The only ancient implements with consistent patterns were ground-edged hatchet heads discovered in the North. 

Stone tools began to spread over the continent about 3000 BC and may have been used for both woodworking and as coinage. 

The most significant social group, the clan, would wander throughout a certain area of land in response to seasonal changes or the requirement to be somewhere specific for rituals. 

As a component of trading networks that transported goods or ideas across great distances, clans were connected. 

Additionally, they preserved and transmitted culture via the use of short songs that effectively convey information about certain locales and song lines, as well as pictures and songs that depict the creation. 

Clans were connected to the earth, to one another, and to the past via rock and body painting and ornamentation of movable artifacts. 

Aboriginal people held the belief that spirit-being ancestors who existed during "the Dreaming" and created the natural world before humans arrived still exist now. 

They adopted numerous totemic shapes and adopted human behavior. 

They continued to have an impact on the natural world and give life to newborns even after they became old and had to return to the slumber from which they had awakened at the start of time. 

It was greatly sought to learn from them on family, hunting, and marital ties. 

According to the availability of natural resources, Australian Aborigines had a hunter-gatherer lifestyle that involved occasional marsh ditching, replanting, and burning of plants. 

Complex eel-trapping systems were built in western Victoria. 

To encourage future development, tubers were transplanted in northern wetland areas. 

In other places, wells were dug to grow massive yam harvests, trees were moved, streams were diverted for irrigation, and digging was done to promote roots. 

It was common practice to utilize fire to clear paths, exterminate pests, clear brush and encourage new growth, cook tasty animals in their burrows and nests, and put out larger, more devastating natural fires. 

However, when Europeans saw these techniques for maintaining grasslands and enhancing the variety of plant and animal life, they did not identify Aboriginal people as farmers, gardeners, or herders. 

They saw Aboriginal area as useless and unclaimed because it lacked clearly defined farms, established communities, and domesticated animals that could be eaten. 

The perception of native people was that they were vagabonds, a lower race that wasn't using the land, and that they needed to be violently removed to make room for colonization. 

Australia was included into the British Empire on the grounds that it was terra nullius, or wasteland free of human habitation. 

Until 1992, when a High Court ruled in the Mabo case that aboriginal title to property still existed in Australia, this misconception predominated. 

Aboriginal Australians. 

The study of Australian Aborigines has always intrigued cultural anthropologists, and many anthropologists from other countries have immigrated to Australia to do so. 

At academic institutions, foreign anthropologists often outnumber native ones. 

Cultural anthropologists and social scientists are now concerned with a wide range of issues that have emerged as Aborigines have integrated into mainstream Australian culture, in addition to the historical components of aboriginal studies. 

Many indigenous communities' educational standards fall short of those of Australians as a whole, which has a negative impact on literacy rates and the availability of the fundamental skills required to prepare children for life in the adult world. 

The most isolated Aboriginal communities also lack access to high-quality healthcare and a basic understanding of how inadequate sanitation increases the risk of contracting certain illnesses. 

For instance, the Australian government agreed to improve fuel access only if local authorities guaranteed that Aborigine children would take daily showers, wash their hands at least twice a day, and that residents would regularly remove household garbage in Mulan, a remote area where more than 60% of Aboriginal children have been diagnosed with trachoma, which can cause blindness. 

Aborigines have a 6 times higher newborn morality rate than the White population. 

In addition to violence, Aboriginal Australians are more likely than other Australians to die from medical conditions. 

In late 2004, the Australian government declared that welfare measures have led to a lifetime cycle of reliance among Aboriginal people while doing nothing to address the inherent issues with acclimatization. 

Low life expectancy, persistent alcoholism, and high levels of domestic violence are a few of them. 

The Australian stated on December 16, 2004, that compared to their white male counterparts, male Aborigines born between 1996 and 2001 had a 59.4 year life expectancy. 

While similar Aborigine females had a life expectancy of 64.8 years, that figure is still much lower than the 82.8 years enjoyed by European females. 

According to experts, poverty and isolation are to blame for the prevalence of drunkenness and the whipping deaths of Aborigine women by their husbands. 

Liberal Party Prime Minister John Howard has put forward proposals that emphasize the independence and self-reliance of Aboriginal people. 

Acclimatization of Aborigines has been challenged by accusations of racism, prompting some specialists to assert that there is a racial crisis in the nation. 

Following the release of a study by the Equal Opportunity Commission, this topic took off in late 2004. (EOC). 

According to the commission's investigation, Aboriginal families in Western Australia, who make up 18% of Homeswest's tenants, were three times more likely to be kicked out for allegedly being in arrears on their rent, causing property damage, or being socially incompatible with their white neighbors. 

The EOC cited the fact that most Aboriginal tenants were forced into subpar housing, most of which was slated for destruction, as evidence of Homeswest's bigotry. 

The investigation also turned up evidence that the staff of the housing authority had been instructed to treat Black and white tenants differently and to give white tenants advice on how to make successful complaints against their Aboriginal neighbors, increasing the likelihood that they would be evicted. 

Homeswest claimed to have adopted 43% of the committee's recommendations, but the executive director disregarded the other 57% because she felt they reeked of paternalism. 

Recommendations that were rejected included relocating congested Aboriginal families into better, more roomy accommodations rather than evicting them since many of the issues were due to overpopulation. 

Homeswest incorporated recommendations such as cultural training for staff members and a commitment to interview renters discreetly as opposed to publicly as was done in the past.

~ Jai Krishna Ponnappan

Find Jai On: Twitter LinkedIn Instagram

See also:

Australian Aborigines

References And Further Readings:

  • Elkin, A. P. (1954). The Australian Aborigines: How to understand them. Sydney, Australia: Angus & Robertson.
  • Swain, T. (1993). A place for strangers: Towards a history of Australian Aboriginal being. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Tindale, N. B. (1974). Aboriginal tribes of Australia: Their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press.

What Is The Anthropological Journey?

Anthropology is the study of humanity via rational analysis and scientific enquiry. 

It aims to provide a thorough and cogent understanding of how our species fits within the context of dynamic nature, biological evolution, and socio-cultural development. 

Physical/biological anthropology, archaeology, cultural/social anthropology, linguistics, and applied anthropology are the five main, interconnected subfields that make up the subject. 

The goal of anthropology is to gain a deeper understanding of and respect for the biological oneness, sociocultural variety, and evolutionary history of humanity. 

The human being is seen by anthropologists as a dynamic and complex combination of social behavior that is learnt within a cultural context and genetic information that is inherited; symbolic language is what separates our species from big apes. 

Anthropology studies things like genes, fossils, artifacts, monuments, languages, communities, and their cultures. 

Both intra- and inter-disciplinary research are used in the holistic approach. 

It includes data from history, psychology, paleontology, geology, and other specialized areas. 

Generalizations concerning the genesis and development of our own species from distant hominid predecessors, as well as theories about the emergence of social systems and cultural adaptations, are all goals of anthropologists. 

Anthropologists can now provide a better picture of humankind's natural history and domination over other species as a consequence of study conducted over many decades and the convergence of facts and ideas. 

The field of anthropology, with the human person as its center of study, mediates between the scientific and social sciences while including the humanities. 

Anthropology is a distinct area of study and a rich source for the pertinent application of facts, concepts, techniques, theories, and viewpoints due to its acceptance and use of biological discoveries, such as the DNA molecule, and its attention to significant ideas in the history of philosophy. 

In the evolving contemporary human environment, substantial fields of applied anthropology have evolved, including forensic, medical, business, and advocacy anthropology. 

Growing fossil evidence indicates that our distant ancestors originated in a diverse group of hominid species, which in turn split off from earlier ancient apelike animals that formerly roamed Africa. 

Some hominid types developed over millions of years, while others became extinct. 

Only our own species has survived human evolution to the current day, proving that it has been an unusually lengthy and difficult process. 

How incredibly fascinating it would have been to have seen our earliest hominid ancestors struggling to adapt and survive in those perilous open forests and grassy savannahs in the distant past! Indeed, speculating on the outward and inside actions of these early hominids is fascinating: They saw the same stars, went through significant habitat changes, and undoubtedly found birth, illness, and death to be puzzling. 

The languages of ancient civilizations have developed, changed, prospered, and then perished, much like the majority of species. 

It is a challenge for anthropologists to recreate both the material cultures and social interactions of ancient communities. 

The four great apes—orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, and bonobos—as well as lesser primates are also compared and contrasted by anthropologists. 

We have discovered that our own species differs from these pongids more in degree than in type as a result of this investigation. 

Humans may be more closely related to the four great apes than Huxley, Haeckel, or even Darwin himself could have predicted in the 19th century, based on fossil evidence suggesting apes, monkeys, and prosimians are our evolutionary ancestors. 

The anthropological search is aided by ongoing scientific and technological advancements, notably in the areas of more accurate dating methods, DNA analyses, and computers for linguistic and cross-cultural study. 

As a boy growing up, I acquired an enduring passion for movies. 

I was introduced to apes, primordial life forms, and ancient civilizations via movies like King Kong (1933), Mighty Joe Young (1949), The Ten Commandments (1956), The Thief of Baghdad (1940), Quo Vadis (1951), and Unknown Island (1948). 

On my inquisitive imagination, the moving pictures on the silver screen made lasting effects. 

My interest in natural history expanded throughout my secondary education as a result of Charles Darwin's scientific hypothesis of organic evolution. 

I also learned about the philosophical past on my own and became enamored with Aristotle and Nietzsche's theories. 

I've had a philosophical bent my whole life, and as a college student, I loved learning about the great philosophers in Western society. 

I conducted research on human craniometry as a graduate student studying anthropology, and I also liked reading the works of cultural theorists, especially Leslie A. White. 

My diverse interests, which included anything from astronomy to religion, were given meaning and purpose within the framework of evolution. 

Once more on my own, I learned that many influential intellectuals, including the early anthropologists, had been affected by Charles Darwin's writings. 

I wanted to combine anthropology, philosophy, and evolutionary theory during my graduate studies in philosophy.

I was prepared to critically evaluate evolutionary explanations in international literature by this research. 

The year 1959 has been a turning moment in anthropological history. 

The "Zinj" skull was found in July by ancient archaeologist Mary D. Leakey in the lowest rock layers of Tanzania's Olduvai Gorge. 

It was the earliest known example of a hominid in this region of the globe. 

1.75 million years passed since Zinjanthropus boisei lived. 

This exceptional specimen encouraged other scientists to look for hominid fossils and paleolithic artifacts in central East Africa, despite the fact that this species constituted an offshoot of human evolution that became extinct. 

The origin, evolution, and variety of early hominids in Africa have been significantly clarified by other amazing discoveries made by scientists and scholars since the year 959. 

My admiration for paleoanthropologists and ancient archaeologists who spend months or years looking for fossils and artifacts that provide light on the biocultural evolution of hominids rapidly grew. 

It is understandable why some anthropologists are so possessive of their unique finds. 

The start of long-term, up-close study of the wild apes in their native environments was another significant development in the middle of the 20th century. 

Such meticulous investigations have tremendously aided comparative primate genetics study as well as monkey behavior research. 

Their ground-breaking fieldwork has significantly advanced the fields of pongid psychology and biological anthropology. 

Earth is both a museum and a cemetery. 

Anthropologists discover more the more they look. 

There are undoubtedly yet more fossil hominids and artifacts to be found. 

Even undiscovered primates and ancient civilizations might yet be discovered in thick forests. 

Anthropology is valuable because it provides science and philosophy with essential information and a broad viewpoint, but it is also valuable because it fosters tolerance and has application to our developing global species. 

Although some anthropologists are now focused on finding solutions in the contemporary world, others are still interested in the biocultural development of people. 

Future anthropologists will probably research how humans have adapted to life in space and maybe on other planets. 

The 1968 movie 2001: A Space Odyssey introduced millions of people to evolution, just as it did for me. 

Its captivating tale of the journey from ape to human to star kid incorporates concepts and images from works by Darwin, Freud, and Nietzsche, among others. 

Both the cosmic viewpoint and an evolutionary framework were presented by Stanley Kubrick and Sir Arthur C. Clarke in a breathtaking visual style that is both fascinating and believable. 

It is now essential for our species to have the drive to develop and the desire to absorb the knowledge that comes through evolution. 

I sometimes imagine what it might be like to helm huge movies like Quo Vadis. 

This "film" tells the human side of the five million year-long epic trip we've been on. 

~ Jai Krishna Ponnappan

Find Jai On: Twitter | LinkedIn | Instagram

References And Further Reading

  • Barnard, A. (2000). History and theory in anthropology. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Bass, B., & Jefferson, J. (2003). Death’s acre: Inside the legendary forensic lab— The Body Farm—where the dead do tell tales. New York: Putnam.
  • Benedict, R. (1934/1959). Patterns of culture. New York: Mentor Books.
  • Birx, H. J. (1984). Theories of evolution. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.
  • Birx, H. J. (1988). Human evolution. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.
  • Birx, H. J. (1991). Craniometry of the Orchid Site Ossuary, Fort Erie, Ontario. Buffalo, NY: Persimmon Press.
  • Birx, H. J. (1991). Interpreting evolution: Darwin & Teilhard de Chardin. Amherst, MA: Prometheus Books.
  • Boyd, R., & Richerson, P. J. (2005). The origin and evolution of cultures. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Chomsky, N. (1975). Reflections on language. New York: Pantheon.
  • Corbey, R. (2005). The metaphysics of apes: Negotiating the animal-human boundary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Darwin, C. (1887/1958/2000). Autobiography. Amherst, MA: Prometheus Books. 
  • de Waal, F. B. M. (2005). Our inner ape: A leading primatologist explains why we are who we are.  New York: Riverhead Books.
  • de Waal, F. B. M., & Lanting, F. (1997). Bonobo: The forgotten ape. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Diamond, J. (1992). The third chimpanzee: The evolution and future of the human animal. New York: HarperCollins.
  • Diamond, J. (2005). Collapse: How societies choose to fail or succeed. New York: Viking.
  • Evans-Pritchard, E. E. (1940). The Nuer: A description of the modes of livelihood and political institutions of a Nilotic people. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Fagan, B. M. (2005). World prehistory: A brief introduction, 6th ed. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall.
  • Foley, W. A. (1997). Anthropological linguistics: An introduction. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
  • Fortey, R. (1998). Life: A natural history of the first four billion years of life on earth. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
  • Fossey, D. (1983). Gorillas in the mist. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
  • Galdikas, B. M. F. (1995). Reflections of Eden: My years with the orangutans of Borneo. Boston: Little Brown.
  • Galdikas, B. M. F. (2005). Great ape odyssey. New York: Harry N. Abrams.
  • Goodall, J. (1986). In the shadow of man. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
  • Harris, M. (1968). The rise of anthropological theory: A history of theories of culture. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell.
  • Harris, M. (1980). Cultural materialism: The struggle for a science of culture. New York: Random House.
  • Langness, L. L. (2005). The study of culture, 3rd ed. Novato, CA: Chandler & Sharp.
  • Larson, E. J. (2004). Evolution: The remarkable history of a scientific theory. New York: Modern Library.
  • Leakey, M. D. (1984). Disclosing the past: An autobiography. Garden City, NJ: Doubleday.
  • Leakey, R.E.F. (1984). One life: An autobiography. Salem, MA: Salem House.
  • Leakey, R.E.F. (1994). The origin of humankind. New York: BasicBooks/HarperCollins.
  • Malinowski, B. (1954). Magic, science and religion, and other essays. Garden City, NJ: Doubleday.
  • Malinowski, B. (1961). Argonauts of the western Pacific. Bergenfield, NJ: E. P. Dutton.
  • Manhein, M.H. (1999). The bone lady: Life as a forensic anthropologist. New York: Penguin.
  • Mayr, E. (1991). One long argument: Charles Darwin and the genesis of modern evolutionary thought. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • McGee, J., & Warms, R. L. (Eds.). (2000). Anthropological theory: An introduction, 2nd ed. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.
  • Mead, M. (1928/1961). Coming of age in Samoa. New York: Morrow.
  • Montgomery, S. (1991). Walking with the great apes: Jane Goodall, Dian Fossey, Biruté Galdikas. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
  • Moore, J. D. (2004). Visions of culture: An introduction to anthropological theories and theorists, 2nd ed. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira.
  • Perry, R. J. (2003). Five key concepts in anthropological thinking. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall/Pearson Education.
  • Powell, J. F. (2005). First Americans: Race, evolution and the origin of native Americans. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Radcliffe-Brown, A. R. (1922). The Andaman Islanders: A study in social anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Richardson, J. (2004). Nietzsche’s new Darwinism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Sapir, E. (1921/1949). Language: An introduction to the study of speech. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
  • Service, E. R. (1975). Origins of the state and civilization: The process of cultural evolution. New York: Norton.
  • Tattersall, I., & Schwartz, J. H. (2000). Extinct humans. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
  • Teilhard de Chardin, P. (1975). The phenomenon of man, 2nd ed. New York: Harper & Row.
  • Thomas, E. M. (1989). The harmless people. New York: Random House.
  • Turnbull, C. M. (1983). Mbuti pigmies: Change and adaptation. New York: Harcourt Brace.
  • Turnbull, C. M. (1987). The forest people. New York: Simon & Schuster.
  • Turnbull, C. M. (1987). The mountain people. Riverside, NJ: Touchstone Books.
  • Watson, J. D. (2003). DNA: The secret of life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
  • Wells, S. (2002). The journey of man: A genetic odyssey. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • White, L. A. (1959). The evolution of culture: The development of civilization to the fall of Rome. New York: McGraw-Hill. 
  • Whorf, B. (1956). Language, thought, and reality. New York: Wiley.
  • Wilson, E. O. (1992). The diversity of life. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Ancient Lajja Gouri Sculpture Reveals Neolithic Female Fertility Worship

A little historical sculpture called "Lajja Gouri" was discovered in the Siddipet district's Cheriyal

Lajja Gouri sculptures have been discovered all throughout the nation in a variety of sizes and shapes, but this particular one may have been carved between the first and sixth centuries AD. 

A rare sculpture of "Lajja Gauri," also known as "Nagnakabandha," "Aditi," and "Uttanapada," but more commonly known as the "Fertility Goddess," was discovered in the agricultural fields in the Cheriyal mandal of the Siddipet district by Venkataramanagari, a member of the Kotha Telangana Charithra Brundam. 

This discovery demonstrates the importance given to women centuries ago. 

Lajja Gouri sculptures have been discovered all throughout the nation in a variety of sizes and shapes, but this particular one may have been carved between the first and sixth centuries AD. 

The soap stone or limestone tiny sculpture, which was discovered in Cheriyal, is 5 inches tall and 9 inches broad. 

It was discovered in Patigadda, a simple agricultural region of around 50 acres, where historians have thoroughly documented the continuance of civilization from the prehistoric to the medieval periods. 

Goddess Baubo of Ancient Greece.

KSB Keshava, a former deputy director of museums for AP, claims that statues of the "Mother Goddess," in which a lady is shown standing in the nude, have been discovered all over the globe, particularly in Iraq, Iran, Mesopotamia, and India. 

"Women have overseen civilizations in every way, whether it was directing the males in food gathering, delivering religious sermons, or looking after the communities. 

Early in history, when battles were fought more often, their significance decreased and patriarchal authority increased. 

But even after the emergence of several other cults in India, such as Shaivism and Vaishnavism, the "fertility cult"—also known as the "Shakti cult"—persisted as the "Shakti cult." 

In reality, it persisted as a component of these cults. 

Keshava claims that statues of Lajja Gauri dating back to the Satavahana period were discovered in the AP districts of Guntur and Prakasam. 

A sculpture in the form of a pot with a thin line denoting "Yoni" (vulva) on its bottom was discovered at Addanki. 

Lajja Gauri: Mother goddess devotion and a fertility cult. 

The sitting position and potentially suggestive aspect of the photographs make them appealing. 

Ancient societies viewed it as a universal tradition to revere female fecundity. 

A significant number of female figurines labeled as the Mother Goddess have been found in almost all of these civilizations. 

Such rituals emerged as a component of social and ceremonial beliefs throughout the ancient era while society and culture were growing. 

In India's Neolithic and Post-Neolithic societies, fertility worship, also known as Mother Goddess worship, developed into one of the most significant traditions. 

Numerous figures that have been recognized as Mother Goddess depictions come from the towns of the Indus Valley. 

These come in many shapes and varieties. 

The figure has a broad pelvis, substantial breast areas, and either a voluptuous or slim body. 

The ornate shapes on the head sections include floral headgear, dotted ear decorations, and necklaces, all made of coiled clay. 

These little sculptures may have been the first examples of Yoni worship in earlier times. 

Scholars have generally agreed that the headless figure with the stupa- and lotus-like forms and a pot-like belly is Lajja Gauri. 

The headless deity's real name, nevertheless, is still unknown. 

In many places, it has gone by different names. 

Numerous instances of this kind have been discovered in Karnataka, ranging in size from two to three inches to life-size figures carved in stone. 

Terracotta is often used to create little representations, whereas stone is used for larger sculptures. 

  • The first instances were discovered at Sannati, a well-known Buddhist site in Karnataka's Gulbarga District. 
  • The Badami Chalukya site at Naganathakolla, close to Mahakuta, yielded perhaps the finest specimen of Lajja Gauri, which is presently on display in the ASI Museum in Badami. 

The Lajja Gauri idols represent a distinctive subgenre of fertility worship. 

The pictures are also known by other names, such as Kamalamma, Kamalamukhi, Kabandhamma, Ellamma, and Renuka. 

Lajja Gauri's figures have intriguing characteristics:

  • In most cases, a lotus has been used in lieu of the image's head to symbolize it. This is referred to as Kamalamma or Kamalamukhi. 
  • The sitting position and potentially suggestive aspect of the photographs make them appealing. 
  • The legs are extended and bent upward. The position is linked to childbirth. It is known as the kabandha stance as well. 
  • The belly part might sometimes resemble a pot (kumbha). 
  • The fact that Kumbha is holding a lotus immediately links the image to Purna Ghata, which represents fertility and good fortune. 

Lajja Gauri worship is a very old custom in Karnataka. 

These pictures range in date from the second to third century CE through the tenth and twelfth centuries CE. 

A sculpture of Goddess Lajja Gauri found in Udupi, Karnataka, India.

The oldest figurines were discovered at Sannati, and they had extremely basic modulation and characteristics that may have been imprinted from mold. 

These characters' basic goals transcend Buddhist doctrine. 

Infertility was a problem then, as it is today. 

People would offer votive items and pray to the goddess in order to have healthier progeny. 

Even Buddha's identity as Siddhartha came to his parents much later. 

Art historian Stella Kramrisch has identified Lajja Gauri as the Vedic Goddess Aditi Uttanapada. 

Unquestionably, the lotus, which has the fortunate connotation of wealth, symbolizes life while the legs are in the Uttanapada (spread apart) position. 

A similar genre may be seen in the early instances discovered at Sannati and other modern sites like Ter in Maharashtra. 

Even in medieval and subsequent times, the practice of Lajja Gauri persisted. 

Lajja Gauri was highly revered during the Badami Chalukya era. 

By this point, it seems that tantric and cultic traditions had intermingled. 

Images of Lajja Gauri have been submitted from Aihole, Mahakuta, Naganathakolla, Huligemmanakolla, and Siddhanakolla—all locations that are near by but very apart from typical settlement in valleys of tiny hills. 

The pictures are still being worshipped in locations like Siddhanakolla and Huligemmanakolla where they have been etched directly into the stones. 

Local myths and beliefs are strongly related to yoni puja's tantric rituals. 

During the Badami Chalukya era, a number of new religions and beliefs had begun to influence traditional religious rituals. 

Lajja Gauri Statue of Naganatha Temple in Bijapur, Karnataka, India.

The Naganathakolla Lajja Gauri, on display at the Badami ASI Museum, displays exquisite lotus flowers in place of the head and incredibly sensual characteristics. 

We are reminded of Surya sculptures by the way her legs are wide out and how both of her hands are holding a lotus, rising to her shoulders. 

The sole difference in the attributes of the Lajja Gauri pictures discovered in the Badami Chalukya area is size. 

The Lajja Gauri cult seems to have blended with the mainstream religious activities during the post-Badami Chalukya era. 

A Lajja Gauri picture with a devotee at her side is in the center of a plaque from Majati (Hukkeri Taluk, Belgaum), which also has seated figures with the heads of Narasimha, Siva Linga, Nandi, and conches. 

The plaque shape was quite common at the time and may be seen in places like Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, etc. 

With her distinctive characteristics immediately linking her to the fertility cult and adoration, the Goddess Lajja Gauri has evolved into a timeless deity.

Goddess Lajja Gauri has strong resemblance to Goddess Sheela Na Gig of Ireland.

This is indication of a possible cultural exchange or ethnic relationship between the two ancient Indo-European populations.

Sheela Na Gig: Irish goddess of the hag.

Sheela Na Gig is most renowned for the stone carvings of a naked female figure displaying her vulva that can be seen all across Ireland.

She is the lusty hag, the Dark Crone goddess, and the embodiment of life's and death's feminine secrets.

Sheela Na Gig maintains the cycle of life, death, and rebirth by holding the joy and passion of existence in her hands, as well as the anguish and terror of death.

Lajja Gauri, also Aditi is a Hindu sky goddess.

Her name means "unbound," "limitless," or "free." 

Lajja Gauri is shown as a lotus-headed goddess, nude and decorated with jewels, with her legs lifted in a birthing or sexual posture, revealing her vulva, in ancient Indian art.

She is the Infinite Mother, the controller of the conscious and unconscious minds, the past, present, and future, as well as the whole cosmos.

She is the ultimate guardian, providing safety, spiritual enlightenment, and worldly prosperity to her offspring, as well as an easy way to their heart's desire for her devotees.

In the holy Vedic literature, Lajja Gauri is described as the Mother of All Gods and the intercessor between humans and the Divine.

~Kiran Atma